Customized Medicines

Customized Medicines
Dr. Sonja O'Bryan, Pharm.D., ABAAHP Board Certified Health Practitioner Diplomate-American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine: "Creative Medicines" for Hormones-Weight-Pain-Fatigue-Skin Diseases-Pediatrics-Autoimmune Disorders-Veterinary Needs. Using Complimentary, Integrative, Regenerative, Bio-Identical, and Lifestyle Medicine For Health and Healing.

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

One Destination-Endless Possibilities! Meet The Professional Team Inside Providence Medical Spa

There's ONE place located in the beautiful Ozark Mountains of Branson MO where you will find the most intentional and caring professionals in Healthcare, Anti-Aging, and Wellness.  It's true!! 

Often referred to as the "Dream Team of the Midwest", these providers are experts in their field and have come alongside each other in a collaborative network to now hold offices inside ONE place offering ENDLESS possibilities in mind, body, spirit, WHOLE PERSON, care.  It's no wonder this place is becoming a favorite by not only the locals of Branson Missouri, but also by all of the vacationing guests that make their way to Branson each year.  If you have not visited this beautiful place of Rest, and Relaxation, and Rejuvenation, then you are missing out.  We want you to know more about Providence Medical Spa and this team so that you can make plans to enjoy some of the services that are offered inside.  Here's a sneak peek at all of the client services that you will find at this special place. Wow!

Providence Aesthetics and Medical Spa: Co-Owners Jana Kueck, RN, and Dr. Robin Talley MD

Cornerstone Christian Counseling:  Owner Pam Hazell, Licensed Professional Counselor
(Individual, Family, and Marriage Counseling)

Lakeland Wellness: Dr. Sonja O'Bryan, Pharm.D., ABAAHP, Diplomate-American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine
(Hormone Testing, Thyroid, Adrenal, Weight Management, Cancer Screening, Stress, Fatigue, Neurotransmitters, Heavy Metal Testing, Food Allergy Testing, General Labs-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, vitamin D, nutrients, personalized medicine)

Enhanced Health:Christi Crosson FNP, and Kate Crosson
(Functional medicine, hair restoration, sexual health, medical weight loss, health and wellness diagnostics, essential oils)

Where Peace Still Blooms Massage Therapy: Owner Jolie Jacobsmeyer, LMT

Douthard Physical Therapy: Dr. Tracy Douthard, PT, D.Min

COMING SOON!!!!  As if it could get any better......CHECK BACK WITH US AUGUST 2018 FOR THESE ADDED SERVICES 

Joining the  Professional Networking Team will be a Micropigmentation Specialist!! 
(Permanent Cosmetics, Microblading, 3D Aerola and Nipple Restoration.  
*We will announce more as the time gets closer and cannot wait to add these highly unique and specialized options to our client service menu. 

We hope to see YOU inside Providence Medical Spa very SOON.  Make sure to mention this BLOG when you call (417-334-4032) to get connected and to hear about current featured services and specials.

All the Best!

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Low Hormones, High Anxiety, and Low Mood-Is There A Link?

In the aging process have you noticed that your moods and emotion seem a little more tender than in years past?  Has it been suggested that you take an anti-depressant for your depression? Is there a potential link between declining hormones and anxiousness? 

I'm asked these questions pretty commonly and wanted to address them more broadly through this blog post.  When it comes to depression and anxiety, serotonin frequently steals the spotlight with medical providers in regards to these concerns of their patients.  But, should another discussion open in considering declining hormones, the menopausal transition, and hormone replacement therapy as a therapeutic intervention?  I say YES! Anti-depressants may provide improvement for some in mood and stability, but have fallen short of optimal for others.  I'm happy to have 20+ years experience behind me in saying that the therapeutic toolbox seems to be opening up more in addressing the wondrous complexity of hormones and their affect on mood, emotions, and anxiety.  The heads of the medical community are now turning their attention to hormonal balance as a means to help patients in health and wellness.

Serotonin the "happiness molecule" helps us with many things such as adaptation to stress, energy balance, sleep, sexual behavior, and of course mood. To make serotonin in the brain and the rest of the body, humans convert tryptophan through food sources like meat, fish, dairy, nuts and seeds into serotonin.  A very important enzyme makes this happen but there are some other important cofactors that contribute as well (i.e. Vit B6, iron)  The pendulum can swing the other way in breaking down serotonin to the very important sleep neurotransmitter melatonin by yet another enzyme. Too much or too little can make a tremendous difference in symptoms for a person.

Estrogens are very important to serotonin in terms of it's production and lingering effectiveness. Simply, when estrogen goes down, serotonin may also take a dive leaving an individual with the classic symptoms of what we connect with depression, anxiety, and fluctuating moods.   A recent study provides evidence that depressive symptoms can be improved or prevented with hormone replacement therapy. This information is significant to many women who would otherwise have to take anti-depressants which can dampen sexual desire and performance.  Hormone deficiencies, it appears, need to be evaluated and included in the 'whole person' approach to health-care. 

Our stressful lifestyles can be another impactful implication in the imbalance of hormones and neurotransmitter production.  Hyperactivation of Cortisol can be a wrecking ball to neurotransmitter production and is worth consideration in assessing an individuals levels. If Cortisol is ramped up all the time as a response mechanism to stress, the person will often have noticeable symptoms. Many of which cross over into the realm of anxiousness, insomnia, low energy, and poor mood.  Remember, when it comes to testing of hormones, salivary assessment is a great indicator of the levels and is very convenient and affordable. 

There's much more to be researched on these topics, but I'm really happy to see women and men testing their hormones and not just immediately signing up for an anti-depressant prescription.  Now let me be clear that it's not wrong to take these medications and to many, as noted above, it can be a critical help.  I've recommend anti-depressants many times for different individuals with different clinical needs. But, (there's that word), if you have suspicion that your hormones have taken a dramatic shift, then I would suggest you test and address that as a part of your care plan.   To treat and Band-Aid one area of health without noticing the other contributors can leave you lacking in efforts to have "whole" wellness. 

Give our team a call or email: if you would like to test your hormones.

All the Best,
Dr. Sonja O'Bryan

Monday, January 29, 2018

What You Might Not Know....

What you might not know, could be affecting your health in ways that you don't even realize.  If you have symptoms, concerns, or just want to know where you stand on certain healthcare matters we can help you.

Did you know? 
Our team provides so many options when it comes to addressing all of the needs that can come up in Health-care and Wellness.  I italicize healthcare because in America it seems that disease care is where most of the attention is focused.  You know....wait until the disease happens, and then respond to it.  Yikes! Never good.

 But.....the tide is changing back to true health-care. (sigh of relief)

Preventative, Functional, Integrative,, Longevity...(whatever name you want to call it "medicine"), is on the rise and I'm seeing trends in people wanting to take charge of their care long before a physician and medical team has to get involved in disease management. It's something I have spent over a 20 year career to see happen and I'm delighted that our team is trained, ready, and 'in the vein' (so to speak) of where healthcare is going.  Our patient base continues to climb and it's mostly based on referral, after referral, after referral.  We've had calls in the last week from Tennessee, Pennsylvania, Kansas, Oklahoma, and of course Missouri.  That's a far reaching distance, but it's because we provide so many great options to Assess and Address problems.   Even well known and famous celebrities are reaching out to our team for care.  Sometimes I pick up the phone and can't believe who's on the other end of the line.  That's life in the personalized medicine lane.....  It's what people want! So awesome!

What options are available? 
Todays blog is to give you a list of all of the options and interests that might help YOU in your quest to have better health and wellness.  The list is not fully comprehensive, but it should give a pretty good understanding of the most common requests that come our way. 

Hormone Testing-if you haven't tested your hormones, I would encourage you to do so.  We provide testing for both men  and women.   It's very easy, convenient, and affordable to test your hormones.
Adrenal Testing-worn out, fatigued, sleepy, foggy, not sleeping.  It could be adrenals?
Thyroid Testing-losing hair, unable to lose weight, tired.  I would suggest thyroid testing
Fertility Testing-If you have had difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term, please give us a call.  We can provide some testing that will help to set the stage for a safe and successful pregnancy.
*I can mail a saliva testing kit, blood spot testing kit, or put in a blood work order to a laboratory near you. The fees will be 100% known before you test.  No surprise and shocking bills in the mail from labs and facilities.

Erectile Dysfunction-If you are a man with Erectile Dysfunction give our team a call. If you are a man that gets up in the night multiple times to pee, give our team a call.  We have a compounded option that can help with sexual and urinary dysfunction.  It's VERY affordable and worth trying for these needs.

Private Consultations-my favorite.  Let's sit down one-on-one.  Call Providence MedSpa for an appointment. 417-334-4032. We'll go over all of your history, concerns, and future goals. ($50)

Personalized Regimens-You probably have that stock of vitamins and supplements that you bought from the last round of get healthy and skinny peddlers and you're not sure if it's the best thing to use. If so, bring them with you upon your visit and we will go over the ingredient list to make sure.

Blood Work-If you are a personal and connected client, I can order blood work for just about anything you want to know.  (thyroid, hormones, nutritional status, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, etc.)

Food Allergy Testing-Are you noticing that certain foods just don't seem to agree with you?  Noticing skin rashes or flares?  Feeling bloated or swollen?  I can provide an at-home testing kit to find out if you have an inflammatory response to the 95 most common foods that Americans eat. 

Customized Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy-Once we see hormone levels from your saliva or blood work, we can discuss a plan for YOU as an individual.  None of this cookie-cutter medicine stuff right? Right!   Hormone testing and treatment are so important in anti-aging care.

High Quality/Highly Effective Supplements- Are you taking the right supplements for your symptoms?  Are you taking the right things to prevent certain diseases and problems in your family genetics?  Lets sit down and talk. 

Customized Pain Therapies- Where do you hurt?  What are you other medical needs?  What things have you tried to alleviate your pain?  We can help design a customized therapy for you which might include many different agents to control your pain and inflammation.

Autoimmune Disease- Sadly autoimmune disease seems to be on the rise.  Psoriasis, Hashimoto's, Crohns, Rheumatoid and other autoimmune conditions often require strategic regimens to combat inflammation. 

Hemorrhoids and Fissures - That's right! It's a common need that we get requests to provide custom therapies for.  We can help you with these discomforts.

Diaper Rash-There's nothing quite so disturbing as to try to comfort a baby with a sore bum.  Give us a call and we can direct you on a proven and effective therapy to relieve the burn and rash for your sweet little babe.

Thanks for reading todays BLOG.  It would be hard to include everything that we are able to provide because of our growing list of patient care offerings. So, if I missed something of interest to you on this list, please don't hesitate to reach out.  Chances are, that we have some great options and direction for you in navigating your health and wellness needs.

To your good HEALTH-CARE!
Dr. Sonja O'Bryan

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Fertility Testing

Struggling with Infertility?  It's important to know what to test.                                                                                                                         
infertility_zrt_profile_2.4.13-821943-edited.jpgThis blog explains what hormones are tested in ZRT's Fertility Profile and why each one is important.
LH & FSH are pituitary hormones, which means they affect the brain. Their communication with growing egg follicles in the ovaries is one of the only positive feedback loops in the body. On day three or four of the menstrual cycle (day one is the first day of the period) LH & FSH are at their lowest level. This relationship is normally a 1 to 1 function, but some women have LH levels that are two or three times greater than their FSH levels on day three or four of their cycle. This is a sign of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and occurs in approximately 50% of PCOS women. The opposite problem can also occur - high FSH and LH levels.

Tuesday, January 9, 2018

Daily Migraine Headaches-A Personal Patient Testimony

Hi Sweet Sonja!

I am over-the-top excited to tell you that I went through a full cycle, a full month without one migraine! God is faithful, and His timing is perfect.

In 2015, I had a migraine almost everyday. In retrospect, it was probably due, partly, to some very serious medicine I was on for the trigeminal neuralgia I developed in 2013. There were, also, many things that triggered the migraines, i.e. certain foods, not eating enough, not eating for long periods of time, bright light, loud sounds, not enough sleep, not good, deep sleep, etc. 

One of the main things, that seemed to be like an umbrella, over all these symptoms, however, were my hormones. 

In 2016, I was off the serious medicine, and the trigeminal neuralgia pain was beginning to subside. The migraines became less, but continued in a cycle. One, in the middle of the month around the 15th, and four to five, in the last two weeks of the month. Sprinkled with one here and there due to the other triggers. 

I met you at the 2017 Women of Purpose Conference on the heels of my asking the Lord for wisdom, direction, and discernment concerning my health. He was opening up many opportunities for me to minister His love to women, and the migraines were a huge interruption! 

I was blessed to attend your workshop, and your message and expertise spoke directly to my heart. You were so very personable and available to me. Your advice for my medical doctor. to order a full hormone panel, and a full thyroid panel were received. My results came back pretty good, as you know, because you were so gracious to read them. 

You recommended some key things that I should start taking and I breezed through the 15th, and only had a tension headache on the 28th, and NO MIGRAINE through the entire month!!! 

I am most grateful for you and your work. You are a sweet blessing from God. He has used you in a miraculous way. Anyone who has suffered with a migraine knows how debilitating they can be. God answered my prayers through you, and now that my health is better, I'm even more excited to see how He will use me in 2018 to share Jesus' love. It's all for His glory! 

I'm so very grateful for you!

Many blessings,

Still on a journey with the Lord Jesus Christ, Lisa Dorr tries to live her life yielded to the work of the Holy Spirit. She loves to encourage women to know who they are in Christ with Ephesians as her favorite book of the Bible. Blessed to have had opportunities to speak at MOPS and other Womens Ministry events, she has led Bible studies, worshiped on the worship team, and is a contributing author and editor for God Stories. Lisa is the author of Every Little Detail, which is her story written to encourage women to find God in the details of life. DASH Girls is a group of women she enjoys ministering with, as they travel together and share the love of Jesus. DASH stands for Destinies. Aligned. to Soar. Higher. She lives with her husband, son, and two cats in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania.

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Food Allergy Testing NOW Available

I was asked the question this week, "Dr. O'Bryan, what diet plan do you suggest I follow? There are so many options out there and I'm not sure what to choose."

Often this question comes from a person wanting to shed a few pounds, but in this case, it was someone wanting to combat foggy brain, fatigue, and joint pain.  This person could not help but notice that certain foods seemed to be triggering an inflammatory response.  I assured her that she was on to something and gave her guidance on an easy, affordable, and convenient option to more clearly identify if this was the case.   She was delighted to know that she could test food allergens and become more strategic with her dietary habits. Makes sense that if you don't know the basic frameworks of what a persons body is doing from within, it becomes difficult to give an answer to such a question about diet plans right? And we all know that certain things work for some people but not for others. My research shows that elimination of food allergens can play a significant role in the realm of healthcare and even in weight loss. 

 Here's how I like to guide people on knowing what to eat, and especially what NOT to eat for better health. 

Consider FOOD ALLERGY testing!
Testing immunoglobulin antibodies to indicate food allergens can be such a helpful tool to a person.   Did you know that your body will raise antibody titers to indicate your immune response to certain foods, which if high, can lead to health problems?  Plain and simple, what you eat can cause many symptoms and, my oh my, do we live in an environment of food allergens. Don't believe me?  Take a look at this in regards to food allergies and symptoms.  Do you notice anything affecting you?  Have you been suspicious of certain foods causing your problem?  Have you considered testing to find out?  You might want to... 


Irritable Bowel
Suspected Celiac
Acid Reflux/GERD
Dermatology/Skin Diseases
Ear Infections
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Weight Gain
Joint Pain
Blood Sugar Problems
Autoimmune Disease!!!!  (a big one)
Menstrual Pain
Fluid Retention

  Is your problem dairy, meats, eggs, grains, gluten, fruits, nuts, vegetables, coffee, or even candida (yeast) overgrowth?   It's very possible!

I provide a consultation/testing kit that will give Low, Moderate, and Avoid criteria for foods that are the biggest offenders when it comes to creating an inflammatory response, symptoms, and reactivity from the 95 most commonly eaten foods.  That's right!  95 'yes' or 'no' foods that you should or should not eat.   I already have patients signing up left and right to find out their personal food allergen profile.  It's wonderful to be able to provide this option in the mix of everything else that we can offer in functional medicine.

Food allergy testing is a great start to making your health a priority. Give our team a call today and we can share all of the details and pricing information to help you succeed in achieving that goal.

All the Best!
Dr. Sonja O'Bryan

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Are You Practicing Sleep Hygiene? Some Insight Into A Good Nights' Sleep

Improving Sleep For Healthier Patients

Meredith Murray, ND
In today’s society where “being connected” and always “doing” is encouraged, getting inadequate sleep can sometimes be worn as a badge of honor. One-third of Americans report getting an insufficient amount of sleep[1]. When I started to prioritize sleep in my own life, I was surprised at how other aspects of my life drastically improved—physically, mentally, and emotionally. When I shifted my clinical practice to really focusing on sleep as a crucial and non-negotiable first step that needs to be improved for my patients, I saw similar outcomes for them. After implementing simple interventions to improve sleep, issues previously difficult to treat seemed to lessen or resolve.
Although it is known that sleep is as necessary as food, water, and oxygen, the intricacies behind it are still mostly unknown. Sleep can be broken down into two systems: sleep-wake homeostasis and the circadian rhythm (or cycle). Sleep-wake homeostasis is the accumulation of sleep-inducing substances in the brain which alert the body that sleep is necessary after a period of time since the last period of sufficient sleep[2]. The body’s circadian cycle is governed by the circadian clock, which is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus and reacts to the body’s exposure to light and dark. While one is sleeping, there are two different cycles and stages: REM and Non-REM (NREM). NREM sleep makes up a majority of the portion of times sleeping and is mainly parasympathetic activity resulting in lowered heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, etc. REM sleep is often thought of as the “dream period”; however, a study released in 2017 showed that dreams can occur in NREM sleep as well[3]. An author of a study that came out of University of Rochester in 2013 likened sleeping to a dishwasher cycle for the brain where it cleans itself of toxic metabolic byproducts[4]. That alone should be a reason to encourage your patients to obtain the best sleep possible.
In daily practice, many of us face patients dealing with chronic diseases. The connection between chronic diseases and sleep health is astounding. The associated health consequences of sleep deprivation include hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety.
It is now known that lack of adequate sleep is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes, with length of sleep acting as a predictor of HbA1c. Sleep apnea, a common but often poorly diagnosed condition, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To screen for sleep apnea, it is important to ask patients about snoring and refer them to a sleep study if they have multiple risk factors. Obesity has been linked to sleep apnea as well as short sleep duration.
The other health consequence of sleep deprivation that needs to be discussed more regularly is drowsy driving. The effect of driving after 18 hours of wakefulness is equivalent to a blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.05% and after 24 hours: a 0.10% BAC (0.08% is considered legally drunk[5]).
Sleep deprivation can also affect a person on a genetic level. Gene expression is altered with insufficient sleep and influences inflammation, brain function, and neural plasticity. It also changes gene transcription responsible for regulating the circadian rhythm thus compounding the effects of sleep deprivation[6],[7].
Sleep is something our body should do naturally, yet 50-70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder, resulting in the pharmaceutical industry for sleep aids being a multi-billion dollar industry[8]. The use of sleep aids is 1 in 8 adults with reported ‘trouble sleeping’ and 1 in 6 with a diagnosed sleep disorder[9]. These medications, such as the popular Ambien, are not without serious side effects. There are very effective and simple ways you can work with patients every day to improve their sleep and avoid taking these medications (or help them resolve the need for them).
Discussing Sleep Hygiene
At this point in time, it’s safe to say that a majority of the people seen in clinical practice are looking at some sort of screen the majority of the day. They are also likely working long hours and neglecting sleep in order to take care of other life responsibilities.
It is so incredibly important to discuss sleep hygiene patterns with patients. Most people will agree these are things they should do, but it is the responsibility of the practitioner to encourage these as if they were a prescription. These habits can positively affect the sleep-wake cycle and return patients to a normalized sleep pattern, resulting in adequate amounts of sleep. It is also important to counsel patients and their families on regularly reaching the recommended amount of sleep for optimal health (see table).
  • Go to bed and wake up at the same time each day.
  • Have a relaxing nighttime routine (that does not involve screens).
  • Do not eat or drink within 2 hours of going to bed.
  • Stop screens (phones, laptops, television) for 1-2 hours before bed.
  • Keep bed for sleeping and sex only. Encourage patients to leave their bedroom if having delayed sleep latency.
  • Try to avoid alcohol or smoking or using stimulants in the evening.
  • Get regular exercise and have regular exposure to natural light.
 Nutrients and Herbs to Support Sleep
While trying to implement these sleep hygiene habits, herbs, nutrients, and nutritional supplements can offer support. Below are a few of the most common and popular ingredients in sleep products. They are often combined to work synergistically.
  • Neurotransmitters and hormones:
    1. Melatonin – This is one of the most widely used natural sleep aids. Melatonin is a hormone of the serotonin cascade and naturally increases during nighttime/darkness when it is secreted by the pineal gland. Supplemental melatonin for sleep is non-addictive, has a short half-life, and helps people fall asleep. It is beneficial because it does not have a negative feedback to the natural production of endogenous melatonin. It is recommended to start with a small dose similar to what is naturally produced, 1-3 mg, and dose this 30-60 minutes before bed[10].
    2. Tryptophan (and 5-HTP) – Tryptophan has shown to help improve sleepiness and decrease wakefulness. It has also been demonstrated that acute tryptophan depletion inhibits REM and prolonged REM sleep. Supplementing with tryptophan can modify serotonin levels, with serotonin being a precursor to melatonin[11]. The average dose of tryptophan is 500 mg. Similarly, 5-HTP is used because it is the derivative of tryptophan and the direct precursor to serotonin and subsequently melatonin. 5-HTP is generally dose at 50-100 mg.
    3. L-theanine – This is a naturally occurring amino acid and has been shown to counteract the effects of caffeine, reduce stress response, and promote relaxation at a dose of 250 mg[12].
  • Herbs
    1. Magnolia – Traditionally used to treat anxiety and depression, it affects the GABAA The compounds honokiol and magnolol have both been used successfully for insomnia. Honokiol can shorten sleep latency to NREM sleep. Magnolol can also have similar effects and has shown to increase the number of REM and NREM sleep cycles[13].
    2. Valerian – This is a very familiar herb used as a sedative and relaxant. It also binds to GABAA receptors and has a similar mechanism to benzodiazepines, though weaker. The volatile oils can also inhibit degradation of GABA. It is indicated for nervous excitement to improve quality of sleep and also has been shown to be successful in women with menopausal insomnia[14]. It can be used throughout the day for anxiety as well as in a higher dose (300-500 mg dried root capsules) before bed. This may make people groggy upon waking, so use caution.
    3. Passionflower – A wonderful gentle herb for sleep issues, though best used as a synergist. It is another herb that binds to GABAA It is indicated for people feeling overwhelmed with responsibilities that are affecting their ability to sleep. It also has an anti-spasmodic effect, which can be helpful for people who have muscle spasm as a result of anxiety. Dose of 200-500 mg; crude herb extract nightly.
    4. Adaptogen/stress support
      1. i) Utilizing herbs that are commonly known as adaptogens (such as Ashwagandha, Reishi and cordyceps) can be beneficial for addressing the HPA-Axis and subsequently sleep.
Overall, in addition to considering someone’s diet, activity level, and mental health, one should also always focus on ways to improve sleep. Sleep, often overlooked, is one of the pillars of health and well-being.
Recommended amount of sleep per age group[15]
4-12 months12-16 hours per 24 hours (including naps)
1-2 years11-14 hours per 24 hours (including naps)
3-5 years10-13 hours per 24 hours (including naps)
6-12 years9-12 hours per 24 hours
13-18 years8-10 hours per 24 hours
18+ years7+ hours per night
[1] CDC – Data and Statistics – Sleep and Sleep Disorders. Cdcgov. 2017. Available at: Accessed July 30, 2017.
[2] HOW SLEEP WORKS – THE TWO-PROCESS MODEL OF SLEEP REGULATION – HowSleepWorks. HowSleepWorks. 2017. Available at: Accessed July 30, 2017.
[3] Siclari F, Baird B, Perogamvros L et al. The neural correlates of dreaming. Nature Neuroscience. 2017;20(6):872-878. doi:10.1038/nn.4545.
[4] Xie L, Kang H, Xu Q et al. Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain. Science. 2013;342(6156):373-377. doi:10.1126/science.1241224.
[5] Dawson D, Reid K. Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature. 1997;388(6639):235-235. doi:10.1038/40775.
[6] da Costa Souza A, Ribeiro S. Sleep Deprivation and Gene Expression. Sleep, Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function. 2015:65-90. doi:10.1007/7854_2014_360.
[7] Moller-Levet C, Archer S, Bucca G et al. Effects of insufficient sleep on circadian rhythmicity and expression amplitude of the human blood transcriptome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2013;110(12):E1132-E1141. doi:10.1073/pnas.1217154110.
[8] Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet public health problem. Choice Reviews Online. 2007;44(10):44-5682-44-5682. doi:10.5860/choice.44-5682.
[9] Prescription Sleep Aid Use Among Adults: United States, 2005–2010 – Products – Data Briefs – Number 127 – August 2013. Cdcgov. 2017. Available at: Accessed July 30, 2017.
[10] Ferracioli-Oda E, Qawasmi A, Bloch M. Meta-Analysis: Melatonin for the Treatment of Primary Sleep Disorders. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e63773. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063773.
[11] Jenkins T, Nguyen J, Polglaze K, Bertrand P. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis. Nutrients. 2016;8(1):56. doi:10.3390/nu8010056.
[12] Dodd F, Kennedy D, Riby L, Haskell-Ramsay C. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood. Psychopharmacology. 2015;232(14):2563-2576. doi:10.1007/s00213-015-3895-0.
[13] Shi Y, Dong J, Zhao J, Tang L, Zhang J. Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence. Current Neuropharmacology. 2014;12(3):289-302. doi:10.2174/1570159×11666131227001243.
[14] Alschuler L. Sleep Well, Sleep Safely: An Exploration Of The Importance Of Sleep And Botanical Alternatives To Conventional Hypnotics. Gaia Professional Solutions; 2014:1-15.
[15] Paruthi S, Brooks L, D’Ambrosio C et al. Recommended Amount of Sleep for Pediatric Populations: A Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2016;12(06):785-786. doi:10.5664/jcsm.5866.